福建省龙岩市连城县庙前镇芷溪村〈芷溪古宗祠文化〉

芷溪古宗祠文化具有自身的特色和特殊作用。它作为古代民间建筑专家的杰作、能工巧匠智慧的结晶,选址之用心,设计之巧妙,规模之恢宏,构建之缜密,用工之精细,含意之深邃,有些宗祠建筑具有“天人合一”、人文与生态和谐统一之功,至今仍然是值得称道的。
宗祠的实用功能本来是祭祀场所,但芷溪诸多宗祠同时又是艺术品。一幢幢古宗祠都有值得你鉴赏、品味的高雅建筑技艺,精工的雕刻艺术、壁画艺术、上乘的书法珍品,寓意深刻的文学典故等等,看了令人遐思万千、感叹不已。它比起目前在全国已经炒作甚是热门的一些民间建筑来,不仅毫不逊色,而且有的还略胜一筹。问题是它长期来“锁在深闺人未识”。可以说,芷溪古宗祠建筑本身就是一本值得精读细研的客家建筑文化艺术的教科书。
从内涵作用看,芷溪古宗祠通过纪念祖先、弘扬祖德这个机制,又成为古代社会农村团结人、教育人、培养人的学校,成为推动村落社会公建公益事业建设的组织者。一是知根知源、凝聚本族。二是引导修德,正人正已。芷溪古宗祠文化给人一个非常突出的感觉,就是许多立在宗祠、写在族谱中的“族规”、“家训”,都是教育子孙注意社会公德、家庭道德、从政官德、经商道德等等的修炼。提倡以孝事亲,以诚待人,以信为本,以忍处世。可以说,宗祠是古代落实道德教育的重要场所。从所提倡的道德内容看,不少东西在今天仍不失为值得传承、弘扬的中华传统美德,与社会主义精神文明并不相悖。三是培育人才,耀祖光宗。在古代,芷溪有“两多”:为官者多,商贩者多。这应当归结于古宗祠文化的作用。这里的宗祠不少内设文武学馆,利用宗祠培育、造就文化人才,还通过宗祠田产收取租谷,设立“学谷奖学制”,而且又规定祭祖“拜图”准入祠堂者除长辈外,得需有功名者,明显鼓励读书,鼓励成才,鼓励建树功名以光宗耀祖,这样自然人才济济。所以,在清代,连城全县文进士13人中,芷溪占了4人,武进士10中,芷奚占了2人,还有举人、秀才、贡生数百。在“五四”运动之后,赴法、日留学者,全县数芷溪最多。由于文人达官多,该村至今保存的楹联、牌匾、名人书画、木石古雕等等亦多,此地文化底蕴深厚,现在已成为福建省的历史文化名村。四是建管公益,惠及村民。在古代,在芷溪的许多村民公建、公益事业是以宗祠为纽带,通过各姓氏、各宗支的长老牵头,以宗祠公共义仓为基础,加上募捐众家钱物劳力办成的,即使到近代,举办连南中学、建设芷溪中心小学所需资金亦是要采用这种民间办法筹集的。应当说,宗祠在一定程度上,在当时社会条件下,起到了某种组织建设社会、管理社区的作用。
上述说明,芷溪古宗祠文化的核心,实际上是儒家思想文化中诸多精华性内容的表现。芷溪古宗祠所蕴存的文化精华,笔者认为在提倡以法治国与以德治国相结合的今天,仍可供人们传承和鉴用,问题在于是否能够真正以历史唯物主义的态度去研究它,分析它,去瑕取瑜,扬其精华。

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[原创]官桥镇侨乡新圩村

[原创]官桥镇侨乡新圩村

新圩村位于南岁官公路与国道324线交接处,东与社庄村相连,西与布厝村相近,南与官桥镇区相接,北面是塘上村。

全村常住人口500多人,海外华侨1000多人,港澳同胞500多人,是官桥镇著名的侨乡。

新圩村是太乙真人杨肃仙公第十六代裔孙杨西田繁衍的后代,至今有438年的历史。

新圩村的南面有个角落叫做"上美亭"这里明末清初曾经是官桥地区一个繁荣集市贸易的地方。根据老一辈人相传、这里建一座美丽的官亭叫"上美亭",亭旁立有一碑石叫"下马石",凡是官家路经此地,必须下马行走。因为社庄村经皇帝封赐"杨家府庙"。至今上美亭有个书塾学校地址尚存,村里有个80多岁老人曾在此读过书。书房旁边有座两层土楼,当年是织布厂,土楼前面有好几口染缸,是当时染布用的。圩上还有开设典当铺;东面有一个甘蔗加工作坊,当时叫做糖铺;北面有个叫店仔口的辟为车站。上美亭同时也是交通要道,是35都的民众通往泉州府、南安溪尾通往安海港口的必经之路,上美亭的街道延伸至塘上"益高店"盐铺有一公里多长,当时是官桥地区集市贸易的重地,因为是做买卖交易场所所兴的集圩,新圩村名由此而来。

新圩村在清同治年间曾经是大发展时期,旅菲富商杨承续回乡建了四座汉式五开间皇宫式大厝,据说其家产比邻村旅菲华侨蔡资深富有,两人曾多次比财斗富。当时华侨纷纷相继回国建家园,小小村落连建了八九座汉式大厝,使村庄面积扩大一倍多。到了二十世纪三十年代,村里又出了一个菲侨富商,名叫杨照星。近代又出了爱国爱乡的旅菲侨商杨丕盾。新圩村的巨商富豪辈出,名闻海内外。

解放后,特别是改革开放以来,爱国华侨及港澳同胞关心家乡公益事业,捐资300多万元建设"弘农小学",村民及爱国华侨共同捐资铺筑村中近千米的水泥路。港胞回乡兴办工厂,村民们也利用"南官公路"交通之便在公路两旁建几十个商店,经营各种生意。村中还有"宝莲禅寺',现辟为宗教活动场所。今日新圩村逐步向农村城市化的道路前进,村民们正向小康型生活奋进。

{新圩村老人协会}{弘农新圩在线}

2007.12.21整理

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