杨家将的故事(05)

四、 杨文广南征北战
杨文广,字仲容,杨延昭子。初以杨家世代功勋入三班院任低级的武职,曰“班行”。庆历三年(1043年),“以班行讨贼张海有功,授殿直”,留在陕西安抚使韩琦军中。第二年六月,参加政事范仲俺任陕西、河东宣抚使时,见到杨文广,非常赏识,又知文广是前朝名将之后,招文广作了他的部下。当时,范仲俺负责处置防御西夏的战争。从此,杨文广在其麾下,走上了南征北战的前线。
西夏,是党项族建立的政权。党项,也称唐古特,是羌化的鲜卑族。初隶属于吐浑国,居于青海东南部。唐时东迁银川平原一带。唐末,其首领拓跋思恭,参加了镇压黄巢起义的战争,受封静难军节度使,赐李姓,世领夏州(治今内蒙白子城),为唐藩镇。后事北宋,赐赵姓,实力渐渐强盛起来,至赵元昊时,拥有“东尽黄河,西界玉门,南接萧关,北控大漠”的广大地区。宋宝元元年(1038年),建元称帝,迁都兴庆(今宁夏银川),国号大夏,史称西夏。西夏政权的南境与宋丰、府、麟、环诸州相接,所以构成了宋西北边境的威胁。杨文广先后随韩琦、范仲俺从事西夏的战事历十年之久,因战功,升至供备库副使。
宋皇祐元年(1049年),广源州侬智高起兵反宋,自称南天国,年号景瑞。四年(1052年),攻入邕州(今广西南宁),称大南国仁惠皇帝,改年号为启历。九月,宋廷命枢密副使狄青宣抚荆湖路,提举广南督诸路军攻打侬智高。宋廷又调陕西诸路军“将”一百五十人,统边兵赴广南行营,隶狄青征代侬智高,杨文广便是诸“将”之一。时侬智高攻下宜州、宾州。狄青率军与侬智高战于宾州归仁铺,杨文广助狄青指挥陕西“蕃落兵”,袭击侬军之后,斩侬军师黄师宓,迫使侬智高退回邕州。接着狄青又夺昆化关,攻邕州城,侬智高突围退往大理国。杨文广追至大理国东合江口(今云南个旧市北),建城堡三所,以屯兵。五年(1053 年)四月,狄青还朝,杨文广因战功升左藏库副使,知德顺军。德顺军治陇干城(今甘肃隆德县)。杨文广赴任不久,广西报告侬智高与大理国王将率兵攻广西、四川。于至和元年(1054年)六月,仁宗以杨文广熟知广西形势,具有统御才干,超升四级,为供备库使,出任广西钤辖,兼判宜、邕二州,防备侬智高。朝廷所颁《左藏库副使杨文广可供备库使制》曰:
“前日南夷负恩为乱,以覆坏我十州,至于用师而后定。朕虽不德,不能怀服远方,而亦将吏不戒之罪也。故深察往失,而推择益不敢轻。惟尔文广,材武忠勇,更事有劳,故今以尔总一道之兵,戍守邕管。又升尔诸使之正,以重其行,尔其祗听朕命,戒疆事,习军计,使南徼无警而朕为知人,则实乃之功矣!其往之。”
杨文广屯守广西十余年间,大理国不敢援助侬智高东征,边塞也未发生较大的战事。以功,杨文广迁右藏库正使、带御器械,以示宋廷对杨文广的亲重。宋治平中(1064~1067年),英宗“选宿卫将,以文广名将后,且有功”,升为成州团练使。还朝任龙神卫四厢都指挥使,成为中央禁军的将领之一。
神宗即位后,委任大将韩琦为陕西经略安抚使,统筹对西夏的战事,兼领永兴军路。这时,杨文广以兴州防御使出任秦凤路副总管,治秦州(今甘肃天水)。秦凤路辖区南起岷山、秦岭,东逾六盘山,包括原来的秦凤、泾原二路之地,其西境与北境因西夏进副而缩至定西、秦川一线。在这一线以外的居民多是羌族部落,其中附宋的称为“熟户”,不附宋的叫做“生户”。秦州西北一百八十里的筚篥(今甘肃甘谷县)地区,原住的“熟户”被西夏劫掠西迁,地空数百里。秦州知州马仲浦提出在这里筑城屯兵,既可保护移民耕种,又可警备西夏。韩琦认为这个建议很好,便上奏朝廷,宋神宗同意后,“驰檄杨文广督成其事”。这时,西夏置保泰军于定西,正谋南下秦川。杨文广受命,即日整兵出发。他闻知军情紧急,诈言筚篥堡有泉喷珠,鼓诱士卒一昼夜急行军一百八十里,到达筚篥,立即进行部署。次日清晨,西夏兵马出现在筚篥城堡下。他们看到宋军严阵以待,不战而退。杨文广遣书曰:“当白国主,以数万精骑逐汝。”派兵开城追击,杀伤数千。事毕,诸将问; “何以如此急行?”文广答曰:“先人有夺人之气,此必争之地,彼若知而据之,则未可图也。”众将皆服文广料兵之精。杨文广据筚篥,加固城防工事,又在鸡川砦(今甘肃天水)沿线修筑城堡。自此,沿线以南数百里皆成“内地”。宋神宗闻报大喜,“诏书褒谕,赐袭衣、带、马”,改筚篥为“甘谷堡”,这就是延续至今的甘谷县城。由于杨文广对西夏防御战事的成功,使秦凤路的兵力和军储大为增强。熙宁五年(1072年)陕甘经略使王韶等率兵向西夏展开大规模的攻势,促使西夏王国向宋廷称臣求和,维护了边境的安定。
就在宋廷与西夏发生战事的时候,辽道宗耶律宏基乘机挟制宋廷,要求割让北境土地,从而使宋军出现了西、北两线防御作战的局面。杨文广在筚篥挫败西夏兵后第二年,被调往北线,升任步兵都虞侯,兼领定州(今河北定县)路副都总管。定州路为宋在河北设四路之一。河北四路中,高阳关路在定州路之北,镇州路与大名路皆在定州路之南,定州路位于中部,是防御契丹南下的要冲,“重兵皆在定州”。凡有重大战事,“御驾亲征”,皇帝行营即设于定州,以指挥诸路。杨文广所受之职,正是河北边防的副帅。熙宁七年(1074年)三月,北辽借口宋军越界筑城,侵入蔚、应、朔三州,派使臣林牙(学士)肖禧(扈)来到宋都开封,争河东地界。九月,神宗派太常少卿刘忱、秘书丞吕大忠与辽使臣枢密副使肖素在代州举行谈判。宋、辽疆界,本在雁门山北麓,而辽使肖素强行提出以雁门山为“分水岭”,久议不决。在双方争议期间,宋廷内部分为三派:以沈括、黄廉、韩琦为代表的大臣,建言拒绝辽邦的挟制。沈括、黄廉认为:“分水画界,中原失险”,韩琦主张:“如契丹败盟,则可一振武威,恢复故疆,摅累朝之宿愤”;以蔡挺等为代表的一些大臣,则建议屈从,提出“尽召还河北沿边戍兵,以示无事”;王安石等臣采取折衷态度,主张“将欲取之,必姑与之”。期间,杨文广完全赞同韩琦等人的主张,坚决反对姑息让步,提出必要时可以一战,乘势收复燕云,并表示愿意担负作战的任务。为此,杨文广积极调整定州兵马,特地绘制了进兵作战的地图,制定了收复幽燕的作战计划,上献朝廷。但未及回报,于十一月文广不幸病逝于军中,第二年闰四月,宋廷赠杨文广为同州观察使。
杨文广一生征战三十余年,先是南下广西,又赴西北甘肃,最后镇守河北前线,与其祖父杨业、父亲杨廷昭一样,为保卫中原地区先进的经济、文化和百姓的生命财产,贡献了自己的毕业精力。近代学者余嘉锡在其《杨家将故事考信录》中评论说:“杨业与契丹角胜三十余年,卒之慷慨捐躯,以身殉国。子延朗(昭)于澶渊之役,请饬诸军扼其归路,袭取幽、易等州。孙文广,亦献策取幽燕。虽功皆不成,而祖孙三代,敌忾同仇,以忠勇传家,诚将帅中所稀有。由是杨家将之名,遂为人所盛称,可谓豹死留皮,殁而不朽者歟!爱国之心,人所固有,后之人何乐而不为也!”

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