杨家将的故事(04)

三、 杨延昭镇守边关
杨延昭,原名延朗,杨业之子。因避圣祖讳,改名延昭;又因“契丹惮之,目为六郎”,所以,小说、戏剧又称作“杨六郎”了。
杨延昭从小就练就一身好武艺,喜欢布阵练兵,做军事游戏。从青年时代起,就走上了抗辽的战场。杨业常说:“这孩子最像我”,每次出征打仗,总要带上他。在战斗中,延昭很快成为一员“骁勇善战”的战将。雍熙三年(986年)北伐,延昭任先锋,在朔州城下激战时,乱箭伤了他的手臂,仍然忍痛与敌兵交战。淳化四年(993年),宋太宗“以江淮浙陕连年凶歉,民多流亡”,于八月间分派八使出巡灾区。杨延昭出任“淮南都巡检使”,镇抚淮南东西两路诸州。后改知定远军(亦称永静军),控扼河北入山的要道。
咸平二年(999年)七月,真宗闻报契丹圣宗及肖太后屯兵幽州,准备大举南下。于是命忠武军节度傅潜为镇、定和高阳关三路行营都部署,屯定州。杨延昭改调保州沿边都巡检使,警备保州、广信、安肃三州军事。又以副使杨嗣屯保州,魏能屯安肃军,自领屯广信军(治今河北徐水西)。当时,宋太宗为了加强北境防御设施,接受了沧州刺史何承矩的建议,利用河北平原湖泊、水系多的条件,建造水田,形成了一道自保州沉辽泺至沧州泥沽海口,绵亘七州军、屈曲九百里的“深不可以行舟,浅不可徒涉”的湖泊、河道和水田构成的“水长城”。这样,既可以减少大量筑城劳役和迁徒居民的费用,兴造水田,养植水产,增加居民和屯军的收入,又可以列置砦栅,限制契丹戎马利我之步兵,拣重养锐,挫彼强敌。由于水路防护的成功,而杨延昭所部驻守的保州、静戎、威虏三州军,就成了契丹陆路南下的咽喉之地。杨延昭到任后,以同巡检魏能屯兵梁门,杨嗣屯兵保州,自领所部屯遂城,正面当契丹之锋。九月初,契丹肖太后及圣宗率诸军越易水,破狼山,直奔遂城。肖太后亲临遂城下,自执桴鼓督战,矢飞如雨,攻势迅猛。城中宋军不满三千,但众志成诚,在杨延昭的带领下,披甲执械,日夜守护,辽兵急攻不下。时正值冬初,寒潮袭来,气温骤降。杨延昭抓住时机,命军民夜间汲水泼浇城墙外皮,第二天早上都冻成了冰,好似冰城一座,坚滑难登。于是,肖太后又分兵攻梁门,守将魏能亦坚守不可克。契丹主力不得不舍弃遂城、梁门南向攻泰州。杨延昭、魏能与保州杨嗣开城率兵出击,契丹大败,弃军械、甲马、旗鼓无数。这一仗被史家誉为“遂城大捷”。对此,沈括《梦溪笔谈》记述:“杨延昭守广信军,即世所谓梁门、遂城者,二军最切虏境,而攻围不平,时人目为‘铜梁门,铁遂城’。”契丹兵从遂城、梁门南攻泰州,杨延昭与保州杨嗣合兵,与泰州守将石普、田绍武等夹击契丹主力于谦良(今河北保定之郊)。由于杨延昭、杨嗣骁勇善战,被誉为边塞名将,号为“二杨”。因战功,杨延昭受莫州刺史,杨嗣和魏能也分别受保州和郑州刺史。这时,契丹又转攻宁边军、祁州,直通中山(今河北定州)。河北元帅傅潜有步骑八万,闭门不出,召致河间、宁边战事失利。真宗闻报,于十二月下诏亲征,赦傅潜无罪,除名流放房州。召杨延昭、杨嗣至大名(今河北大名东),入奏边事。真宗指着杨延昭对诸王说:“这就是杨延昭,其父为前朝名将。延昭治兵护塞,复有父风,深可嘉也。” 厚赐遣还任。不久,杨延昭升为莫州团练使。
肖太后的大军在遂城被杨昭打败,撤兵北归。于咸平三年(1000年)冬,又遣轻骑数千掩袭杨延昭所部。杨延昭得知,预先埋伏精兵于遂城西北之羊山。派少数骑兵自北出击辽兵,且战且退,诱敌至羊山下。时伏兵四起,尽歼辽兵,斩其首领,这就是著名的“羊山之伏”。当地百姓为纪念这一胜利,改羊山为杨山,又名藏兵山。
肖太后羊山兵败后,又调兵遣将,整顿兵马,以宰相肖达兰为统帅,结集重兵于幽州。真宗得报,命杨延昭屯兵保州,魏能屯兵遂城,田敏屯兵北平砦(今河北完县),张凝屯兵泰州,进行防御。不久,又以杨延昭为宁边军都部署屯大名,自为一军,直隶朝延,不受河北大帅王超节制。咸平七年(1004年)闰九月,肖太后率兵30万分两路南下,进入宋境。东路军由肖太后和辽圣宗统领,以肖达兰为元帅,自涿州、易州南下。这时,正是宋朝抗战派首领寇准任宰相,专决战事之际。在辽兵南下之初,寇准就指令河北、山西、山东诸州县,加固城防工事,动员当地军民坚壁清野,严阵以待。在辽军东路军受阻于唐河时,寇准又进行周密部署,命杨延昭、张凝、魏能、田敏、石普及府州忻惟昌,分别率轻骑深入敌境,进行牵制作战。又命并州都部署雷有终统领山西所部东出石门、镇州,与河北王超主力合势加强正面作战。忻惟昌东渡黄河出岢岚,攻杀辽兵万人,乘势攻入朔州,夺取了辽军大寨光狼城,迫使进入山西的辽西路军全线撤退。杨延昭所部渡过易水、白沟河,深入房山地区,直逼幽州。时河北平原民众亦“州县坚壁,乡村入保,金帛自随,谷不可徙,随在座藏”,又组成义军,号曰“强壮”,随时随地袭击辽兵,协助官军守城,对当时的战事,起了很重要的作用。辽军在宋军官兵的打击和平民“强壮”的声援下,辽军虽集中兵力转战千里,但始终不能攻克一城一砦,至澶州(今河南清丰西)后,气竭力衰,再也不能前进了。
澶州为宋都开封的北门,辽军逼近,引起了宋廷的恐慌。以参知政事王钦若为代表的投降派主张迁都金陵,签枢密院事陈尧叟主张迁往成都。寇准力排众议,促使真宗亲征,渡河御北门楼,“远近宋军望见御盖,踊跃欢呼,声闻数十进里。契丹军相愕视,不能成列。”相持十余日,辽军元帅肖达兰出阵督战,被宋兵射死。肖太后深知正面宋军实力强盛,背后退路已断,获胜希望渺茫,于是密通书使,请盟乞和。杨延昭坚决反对议和,支持寇准主战的立场。他上书真宗,“契丹顿澶渊,去北境千里,人马俱困。凡有剽掠,皆在马上,人有归心,马有余力,其军虽众,败之不难。请饬诸军,扼其要路,众可歼焉,即幽易数州,亦可袭而取。”寇准虽赞成杨延昭的决断,但是,一心只想苟且投安的宋真宗,在投降派王钦若的怂恿下,答应了与辽军议和,双方签订了历史上有名的胜者屈从败者的“澶渊之盟”。结盟之后,杨延昭拒绝宋延“勿伤北朝人骑”的命令,与张凝、石普等战将连歼辽兵游骑。在辽军北退时,又不顾宋廷“勿追契丹”之令,独自率所部万余骑,“抵契丹界,破古城(今山西广灵西南),俘获甚众”。至今在广灵西南有杨延昭与肖太后相战的遗址。对于“澶渊之盟”的得失,就连当时宋、辽双方的皇帝也心知肚明。宋庆历二年(1042年),契丹遣使索要关南十县地并要增加岁币。宋仁宗说:“当时若听杨延昭诸将之言,何致有今日之事?”宋臣富弼奉旨使辽,对辽兴宗说:“北朝忘章圣皇帝之德乎,澶渊之役,苟如诸将言,北兵无得脱者。”兴宗听了,无言以答,遂放弃了割地的要求。
澶渊之盟后,真宗还朝,杨延昭出任莫州防御使、知保州,兼领沿边都巡检使。不久,又升任高阳关路副都部署。高阳关路,共辖十二军、州,即乾宁军、信安军、保定军、顺安军、安肃军、广信军、沧州、莫州、霸州、雄州、瀛州、保州、还有“三关”,即高阳关、益津关、瓦桥关。辖区为今河北中西部和天津南部的广大地区,是宋、辽交界的前沿地区。虽然杨延昭为高阳关路最高军事指挥官,志在收复失地,保卫家乡。但朝廷在王钦若等人的操纵下,排斥寇准等刚直重臣,致使杨延昭的鸿鹄之志,不能施展。
王钦若其人“性便佞,有智术,善伺察人主,每朝廷有所兴造,辄委曲迁就以中帝意”。为此,为宰相王旦所不齿。真宗虽宠信他,由于王旦阻止,不得升耀。澶渊之战,他力主逃跑,又为寇准所罢斥。仁宗时,经王钦若及其党人的极力挑拨,寇准被一度贬斥出朝,任王为宰相。王钦若状貌短小,项有瘿瘤,时人称之为“瘿相”。他与丁谓、陈彭年、林特、刘承珪等把持朝政,朋比为奸,人称“朝中五鬼”。就连仁宗皇帝也曾对辅臣说:“钦若久在政府,观其所为,其奸邪也!”宋廷在王钦若奸党的把持下,虽委任杨延昭为知保州兼沿边都巡检使,但朝廷授敕说:“缘边都巡检使杨延昭,止令在保州,遣同巡检,往来巡察,如遇群盗,会兵翦戮。”对杨延昭的职责、行动进行了限制,只让他去对付“群盗”即农民的反抗斗争。杨延昭升任高阳关路副都部署之后,朝廷又给延昭命令:“如闻保州遣兵袭贼,私越北境疆场之事,尤务宁谧,其令本州按罪痛绳之。”这等于是谁与辽兵作战,就要受到“痛绳”之罪。与此同时,朝廷又不断派去监军,就地挟制杨延昭的行动。在这样的情况下,杨延昭仍然敬业职守,筑城堡,修城井,建水堤,设军铺,在边防沿线修建的城、砦、堡、铺、河、堤等防御工程,星罗棋布,把千里边防建设得固若金汤,使辽兵不敢越雷池半步。至今在山西北部和河北中西部广大地区,见于文字记载的如六郎城、杨六郎寨、六郎堤、六郎砦以及拒马河、倒马关、试刀石等杨延昭镇守边关时的遗迹、遗址多达百十余处。明人蒋一葵《长安客话》中说:“霸州……沿城有七十余井,亦延昭所凿,谓之护城井。”《霸州志》亦说; “六郎堤,起点齐家埝,终点老堤,长二千一百六十丈”,“顺六郎堤至老堤与中亭河接,为杨延昭水运道,故名。”在河北雄县城东北邢村南端,有高约七米、占地近4000平方米的大土台,当地群众俗称点将台。1991年,附近居民建房取土,在地下4米深处发现有古栈道建筑群,大都完好如初。《雄县志》记载,这是“宋初守将杨延昭用于防守的地下室穴通道”。报导说:暗道内建有能聚集多人的屋室,有供将领议事的秘堡,有兵器室及陷井、翻板、掩体洞、迂回洞等,还设有放灯处、通气孔和监视敌人的设置台。台下议事,台上点将,集防、打、藏、走为一体。经有关专家考证,确认为杨延昭点将台。现经过整治开发,已向游人开放。
杨延昭从青少年时起,就走上了抗辽前线。他“智勇善战,所得奉赐悉犒军,未尝问家事。出入骑从如小校,号令严明,与士卒同甘苦。遇敌必身先,行阵克捷,推功于下,故人乐为之用。在边防二十余年,契丹惮之,目为杨六郎”。大中祥符七年(1104年)正月,杨延昭卒于高阳关任上。宋真宗闻报,甚为悼惜,“遣中使护榇从归,河朔之人,多望柩而泣”,就连契丹人也对这位英雄举哀致敬。

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