杨家将的故事(03)

二、 杨业威镇雁门关
后周显德七年(960年),后周殿前都点检赵匡胤发动“陈桥兵变”,即皇帝位,灭后周,建国号曰宋,改元建隆,以汴梁(今河南开封)为都,史称北宋。太平兴国四年(979年),宋灭北后,结束了唐末五代以来封建割据的局面。这时,强盛起来的北方契丹,不断南下侵扰,成为宋王朝最严重的隐患。在民族矛盾日益尖锐的情况下,以杨业、杨延昭为代表的杨家将走上了抗辽的前线。
杨业,原名继业,河曲土豪杨信之子。“弱冠事刘崇,为保卫指挥使,以骁勇闻,累迁至建雄军节度使,屡建战功,所向克捷,国人号为‘无敌’”。杨业生长在 “以武力雄其一方”的杨氏家族中,从小受着父辈的熏陶,练就了一身骑射武艺,学得了行兵作战的知识和韬略。《宋史》说他“幼,倜傥任侠,善骑射,好畋猎,所获倍于人,尝谓其徒曰:我他日为将用兵,亦犹鹰犬逐雉兔尔。”杨业年轻时任北汉刘崇政权的保卫指挥使,被赐姓刘,仍名继业。北汉是一个仅有并、汾、忻、代、岚、宪、隆、蔚、沁、辽、麟、石十二州之地的小朝廷。但凭借晋阳特殊的战略地位,在契丹的支持,与后周、北宋抗衡29年之久。杨业在北汉期间,虽然参加了与宋的几次大的战斗,但对北汉政权依附契丹是不满意的。宋开宝二年(969年),宋太祖亲征北汉,“时,契丹遣其南大王来援,屯于太原城下。刘继业(杨业)言于北汉主曰:契丹贪利弃信,他日必破吾国。今救兵骄而无备,愿袭取之,因籍河东之地以归中国,使晋人免于涂炭,陛下长享贵宠,不亦可乎!”这一建议,未被北汉主采纳,但他仍受命遥领建雄军(治代州)节度使,以备防御契丹。
宋太平兴国四年(979年),宋太宗亲征北汉。在激烈的攻城战斗中,“刘继业为继元捍太原城,甚骁勇。及继元降,继业犹据城苦战。上(宋太宗)素知其勇,欲生致之,遣中使谕继元,使召继业。继元遣所亲信往,继业乃北面再拜,大恸,释甲未见。上喜,抚尉之甚厚,复姓杨,止名业。寻授右领军卫大将军。”充分表现了杨业的大局意识和“忠于所事”的品德。不久,太宗“以业老于边事,洞晓敌情”,复迁代州,兼三交驻泊兵马部署,“密封囊装,赐矛甚厚”。杨业遂驻代州前线,担负起在山西防御契丹的重任。杨业不负太宗厚望,在短短的一个多月内,在代州一线辽军出入的要道口,修建了六个兵寨,即阳武寨、崞寨、西陉寨、茹越寨、胡谷寨、大石寨。随后几年内,又建有楼板寨、土墱寨、石趺寨、雁门寨,还有代州境内的瓶形寨、梅回寨、麻谷寨、义兴寨。这十几个寨堵住了通往契丹蔚、应、寰、朔等州的大小通道45处,形成了进可攻退可守的城寨网。仁宗朝名臣包拯曾说:“先朝以骁将杨业守代州,创筑州垒,至今赖之。”就在杨业赴代建寨后不久,就发生了“雁门大捷”的战事。
宋太平兴国五年(980年)三月,契丹皇帝耶律贤亲率辽军十万骑围攻雁门。杨业命部将董思愿等堵断峡谷南口,自己率领数百骑自西陉绕道雁门关峡谷北口,南向猛攻,杀死辽节度使、驸马侍中肖咄李,生擒其马前军都指挥使李重诲,获铠甲革马甚众,大败辽军。创造了中国历史上以数百骑战胜十万兵“以少胜多”的辉煌战例。自此,杨业声威大振,“契丹畏之,望见业旌旗即引云。”不久,杨业因战功升云州观察使,仍知代州,判郑州。七年(982年)四月,契丹主耶律贤自率兵三万骑分三路攻宋。西路攻府州,被折御卿打败;东路攻高阳关,被崔彦进打败;中路攻雁门,被杨业打得大败,损兵三千,万余被俘,丧失牛马五万计,被攻破堡垒三十六个,杨业战果最为显著。在雁门连败契丹大军,引起了以主将潘美为首的忌恨,“或潜上谤书斥其短。帝皆不问,封其奏以付业。”
宋太平兴国七年(982年)九月,辽景宗耶律贤卒于焦山(今山西左云),子隆绪继位,是为圣宗。时年隆绪方十二,其母肖太后摄政。由此,大臣不附,部族多叛。宋将贺怀浦、贺令图、刘文裕等认为这是收复燕云十六州的好机会,相继上书,请求宋太宗北伐。宋雍熙三年(986年)正月,宋太宗下诏分三路北伐。东路由曹彬、崔彦进率主力从雄州(今河北雄县)出发北攻幽州;中路由田重进、谭延美领兵长驱飞狐(今河北涞源);西路由潘美、杨业出雁门,收复山后诸州。出师初,三路全线顺利。尤其是西路军杨业部在雁门北口首战告捷,乘胜攻占寰、朔二州,随后又攻克云、应二州。北伐的节节胜利,受到了代北百姓的欢迎和支持。父老迎着杨业的部队,感慨地说:“久陷边陲,有粟不得食,有子不得存养,不意余年,重睹日月!”他们自动组织起来,或充向导、供军资,或夜袭辽营斩首来献,或持兵杖随军攻战。宋太宗得报,令可征募壮士,一时间应募者千百成群。这时,辽太后见宋大军逼进,决定倾国相争,派重兵十余万骑南下,致使宋主力东路军曹彬部在岐沟被辽兵打得连连败退。辽军在解除正面威胁后,集中兵力压向西路军潘、杨部。宋太宗得知宋军主力战败的情报,下令撤兵,召曹彬、崔彦进等回朝;又命潘、杨所部护送云、应、朔、寰四州官民撤回关内。
杨业为完成这一艰巨的任务,经过周密思考,提出了一个切实可行的方案:使关内部队从大石路(今山西繁峙城东)直奔应州;派人密告云、朔守将,候我军离代州时令民众先出城,由轻骑接应;派伏兵于石碣谷口,准备迎战。这样可以使四州官民安全内迁。监军王侁在潘美的默许下,有意陷杨业于绝境,首先反对杨业的方案,他坚持使杨业率兵直奔雁门北川,进攻马邑。另一监军刘文裕也赞同王侁的主张。杨业表示:照此,一定会失败。王侁居然挑衅地说:“你号称无敌,今日不敢与敌人正面交锋,难道有不可告人的打算!”逼杨业出战。杨业非常气愤,说:“我不是怕死,是考虑如何安全撤退。既然你们这样指责我,只好出战,但是这样必败。我是太原降将,蒙皇上恩德授以兵柄,我愿以死报国。”杨业临行前,指着陈家谷对潘美说:“你们务必在两翼布置步兵强弩,待我转战到这里,你们就出兵夹击。不然,将全军覆没。”
七月八日夜,杨业率所部出石碣路,第二天清晨到达朔州东部,与辽将耶律斜轸激战被围。杨业突围后于黄昏时,来到陈家谷口。潘美、王侁也曾布兵陈家谷北口,并使人登西侧托逻台北望。望兵误传辽兵败退,先是潘美打算领兵抢功。不久,得知杨业战败的消息,他又慌忙撤兵逃走。当杨业见到陈家谷无一伏兵,“即扶膺大恸,再率账下士兵力战”,身受伤几十处,仍奋力杀死辽兵百十人,终因寡不敌众,被俘,绝食三日而逝。在杨业最后被围时,部下尚有百余人。杨业不忍这些将士与自己同归于尽,对他们说:“汝等各有父母妻子,与我俱死,亡(无)益也。倘敌人散云,尚可还报天子都者。”部下无一人肯离云,一齐战死。与杨业同时战殃的还有杨业之子延玉、部将淄州刺史王贵、皇亲岳州刺史贺怀浦。
宋太宗得到杨业殉难的消息,非常痛惜。乃下诏曰:“执干戈而卫社稷,闻鼓鼙而思将帅,尽力死敌,立节迈伦,不有追崇,曷彰义烈!故云州观察使杨业,诚坚金石,气激风云,挺陇上之雄才,本山西之茂族。自委戍乘,式资战功。方提貔虎之师,以效边陲之用,而群帅败约,援兵不前,独以孤军,陷于沙漠,劲果猋厉,有死不回,求之古人,何以如此。是用特举徽典,以旌遗忠,魂而有灵,知我深意。可赠太尉、大同军节度使,赐其家布帛千匹,粟千石。大将军潘美降三官,监军王侁除名隶金州,刘文裕除名监登州。”杨业战殁。光绪续修《岢岚州志》追述其事云:“业战死于陈家谷,潘美王侁畏罪,欲掩其事,折(折太君)上疏辩夫力战获死之由,遂削二人爵,除名为民。”近代著名学者余嘉锡评论此条记载时说:“此书虽修于清末,然乾隆《保德州志》叙折氏事,所引《岢岚志》已与此同,知其远有因袭,非出杜撰,揆以当日情事,必是如此。”
杨业是被奸臣潘美陷害而死,这在当时和后世多有评论。杨业自己就说:“上遇我厚,期讨贼捍边为报,而反为奸臣所迫,致王师败绩。”这里所说的奸臣是谁呢?就是潘美。早在宋哲宗元祐年间,苏辙出使契丹,作《过杨业无敌庙》诗,云:
行祠寂寞寄关门,野草犹知避血痕。
一败可怜非战罪,太刚嗟独畏人言。
驰驱本为中原用,尝享能令异域尊。
我欲比君周子隐,诛彤聊足慰忠魂!
苏辙在末两句点明,以晋代周处死事比杨业,以梁王彤隐指潘美,主张杀潘美以谢忠魂。余嘉锡在《杨家将故事考信录》中指明:“业言为奸臣所嫉,逼令致死,奸臣二字,实指潘美……美以忌功妒名,遂置国事于不顾,奸臣之曰,非美而谁!”著名历史学家李裕民教授,根据新发现的资料加以研究,他说:“现在面纱已经揭开,戏剧、小说里描绘的潘美陷害杨业的故事,尽管有许多夸大的虚构,但潘害杨的基调并没有错。”
杨业战殁后,雁门局势发生了根本的变化。“宋元守云,应诸州者,闻继业死,皆弃城遁逃”。“契丹因获杨业之胜,乃遣耶律逊宁号于越者,以数万骑取瀛州”。致使契丹乘势大军压境,曾一度攻至代州城下。时驻守代州神卫都指挥使马正、副都部署卢汉赟畏懦无能,不敢与辽兵交战。太宗遂派给事中知代州张齐贤奔赴前线。张齐贤约潘美从太原出兵增援代州,当潘美率部行至柏井(今太原阳曲县北),闻前方失利,慌忙逃回太原。张齐贤无奈,只好另选各州地方武装,从土寨出兵奇袭辽营,才把契丹击退。为此,仁宗时监察御使包拯在《论边将》中说:“河北沿边将师未甚得人,特请精选,其代州尤不宜轻授。缘代州与云、应等州相去甚近,路又平坦,古来最为难扼之区。太宗朝以骁将杨业守之,继以给事中张齐贤守之,其慎重用人如此。”著名学者余嘉锡更认为:“曾作《隆平集》,元人修《宋史》,皆以业之生死定辽、宋之盛衰。”由于杨业的战殁,虽不致立即导致宋廷灭亡,但“杨业死,长城毁”,给宋王朝在军事上带来严重后果。
杨业与契丹角胜三十余年,尤其是在他归宋后的七年抗辽,为保卫中原地区先进的经济、文化和百姓的生命财产,作出了杰出贡献。他的英雄业绩,在当时就普遍传播开了,“天下之士至于里儿野竖,皆能道之”。杨业的英雄品格也受到契丹统治区人们的尊重,在杨业殉难后不久,就有人在契丹境内的古北口(今北京密云东北),建起杨无敌庙,“尝享能令异域尊”。今山西代县鹿蹄涧村有杨忠武祠,建于元至元十六年(1279年)。杨成武将军曾于1998年题写“杨忠武祠”匾额。现杨忠武祠已经成为海内外杨氏寻根祭祖和旅游的胜地,亦是对青少年进行爱国主义教育的场所。

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