杨家将的故事(01)

千余年来,杨家将的故事传颂不息,脍炙人口,闻名国内,声播海外。纵观中国古代的历史,像杨信、杨业、杨延昭、杨文广祖孙四代,英勇奋战,前仆后继,为保卫中原地区先进的经济、文化和人民群众的生命财产,做出了巨大的贡献,是极为罕见的。这就是杨家将为什么千余年来深入人心、世代相传的根本原因。
“杨家将”一名,就目前所见到的历史文献而言,最早见于宋末元初人徐大焯《烬馀录》。其曰:杨业战殁,“长子渊平随殉,次子延浦、三子延训官供奉,四子延环、五子延贵并官殿直,六子延昭以从征朔州功,加保州刺史,七子延彬屡有功,并授团练使。……延昭子宗保,官同州观察使,世称杨家将。”
杨家将的历史记载并不多,但其传说故事却非常丰富,形成了巨大的反差。过去人说杨家将的故事三分真实,七分虚构,也是不无道理的,但是,北宋欧阳修在《供备库副使杨君墓志铭》中说:“君(墓主人杨琪)之伯祖继业,太宗时为云州观察使,与契丹战殁,赠太师中书令。继业有子延昭,真宗时为莫州防御使,,父子皆名将,其智勇号称无敌。至今天下之士至于里儿野竖,皆能道之。”就是说,杨业、杨延昭父子的英雄事绩,在他们死后的当时就已经以口碑的形式普遍流传开了。口碑传说的始作者,无疑是那些从前线回来的与杨业、杨延昭一起作过战的将士们。当事人讲述亲身经历的战事,主要人物和基本事实是可信的。这就为我们提出了一个值得研究的新课题,即如何对杨家将的传说故事加以具体分析和论证,从中确认其真实部分,丰富杨家将的史实,重新认识杨家将的真实历史。本书试图就此问题加以探索,抛砖引玉,供广大读者参考。
学术界对杨家将的研究,主要成果有近代学者余嘉锡《杨家将故事考信录》、山西大学郝树侯教授《杨业传》、天津人民出版社常征先生《杨家将史实考》等。著名历史学家、陕西师范大学李裕教授,对《杨家将故事考信录》和《杨家将史实考》,进行了批注,纠正了部分不实之处,撰文《杨家将史实新考》,为我人深入研究杨家将历史,起了导师的作用。本书能够面世,受益于上面所列举之著作,是应当说明和感谢的。

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