杨增新是蒙自期路白乡大莫别村人

杨增新是蒙自期路白乡大莫别村人。生于1863年,出身于世代官宦书香之家。自幼聪敏好学。光绪十四年,杨增新25岁,他离家到省城昆明参加 子科乡试考中举人。次年赴京城会试,点进士。27岁始,历任甘肃天水县知事,河州知州,甘肃提学史兼学堂总办及高等学堂监督等职,政绩突出。光绪三十四年入新疆提任镇迪道兼提法使,1912年被北京国民政府任命为新疆督军、省长,自此,杨增新主政新疆十七年。1928年6月,被南京国民政府任命为新疆省主席兼总司令,同年7月7日被下属樊耀南刺杀身亡。杨增新在新疆雄才大略,“无为而治”,政绩卓著。一是恢复新疆统一;二是将阿尔泰特别区纳入新疆管辖,避免国土沦丧;三是抵制帝国主义势力对新疆的渗透和颠覆活动,维护国家主权;四是促进新疆经济社会有所发展,解决新疆财政危机,整当时政风,整顿田赋,重教兴学,开渠垦荒,安置移民,开发城镇,开展外贸。杨增新从政40年的经历说明,“他是一个清醒的政治家和坚定的爱国者,著作颇丰的学者。”访这位历史人物的故居,是我久已有之的心愿。

  7月17日上午,抽暇,我和红河州政协及蒙自县政协文史委的同志顺蒙屏公路驱车33千米到期路白乡的白勐孔,尔后转入18千米崎岖山路,颠簸近两个小时到达大莫别村。

  视觉离开蒙自秃岭,移到如画的大莫别村,途中的颠簸懊恼倾刻消失殆尽。夏日的大莫别村,在蓝天的映衬下,浸融在郁郁的杉木和松、浓荫的木荷和桤木、婷婷的竹和棕榈、正盛开白花的大枇杷、坡地上抽穗的包谷以及梯田中扬花的稻所展现的生命的绿色中。而在千姿百态,多种多样植物组成的铺天盖地的绿色中,一丛丛缀满猩红果实的“救军粮”,又似满世界的绿吐出的对生命的炽热的感情之火,烧得令人心醉。在村口,我们巧遇村委会的杨主任(女)、吴副主任和莫别小学校李校长等人,大家七嘴八舌地介绍,“莫别”是彝语“高大的山”的意思。大莫别村钟灵毓秀,海拔1600米,背依狮子山,脚踩莫别冲,自古读书人多,现在全村180余户,800余人,生活温饱不愁,正努力发挥优势,调整产业结构,增加收入奔小康。放眼望去,村中一幢幢瓦房,粉墙灰瓦,鳞次栉比,在绿树浓荫中依山坡而建。少数先富起来的村民,已盖起了贴瓷砖的砖混结构的楼房。

  我们一行人入村,沿着青石板铺就的下坡路,行约百米,右拐就到了杨家老宅。我原以为,集“军阀、官僚、学者”于一身,统治面积占全国六分之一的新疆的督军、省长,光宗耀祖的故乡宅第应是青砖灰瓦,气势恢弘,高楼广厦,雕梁画栋,建筑考究的豪宅大院。但兀现在我们面前的杨家老宅却是一幢饱经风雨沧桑,屋漏墙塌,建筑规模与一般村民宅院相差无几的旧房。杨宅仅为一幢长20米、宽80米、高6米的二层土木结构瓦房,倘若不是一楼回廊8棵木柱下较为显眼的瓶型和方型、鼓型石柱础,五彩石阶上面雕有莲花、各高2米青石柱和房架上做工较为精细的柁梁,楼上回廊栏杆稍显昔日在小山村中的“气派”和文化底蕴外,的确令世人难以把眼前的“杨宅”与“督军、省长”的官职联系起来。

  杨主任告诉我们:据村中老人讲,现存杨家老宅系1945年后建盖,解放后作为莫别小学校会,现已属危房。杨增新生活过的房屋是此屋右侧的一座小四合院,因年久失修文革中已被拆除,遗物仅剩两个躺在墙角直径约60厘米,高40厘米的鼓型石柱础……令人欣慰的是,杨增新的后人,个旧供电局杨荆秋先生得知莫别小学所用杨家老宅已成危房后,经多方筹资,筹得10万元捐给莫别小学建盖新舍,让莫别小学师生迁入新校舍;蒙自赵志海先生捐款1万元给莫别小学购置图书,又捐款1万元用于修缮杨家老宅,以示对杨增新的纪念。杨主任还说,莫别的大枇杷个大而甜,色泽金黄,远近闻名,其种苗就是杨增新在新疆做官后,带给家乡的纪念。今年莫别村委会调整产业结构准备重点发展大枇杷2000亩。

  我伫立在杨增新故居宅前,脑海中生出一个问题:20世纪初的新疆,处于辛亥革命风起云涌,清王朝土崩瓦解,俄英帝国主义虎视眈眈,财政处于崩溃边缘,各种矛盾交织,社会动荡,狼烟四起的时期,杨增新长袖善舞,主政新疆17年,功不可没,其逝世后,“全省人民巷哭野祭,女人孺子亦相向而哭”,其在新疆现代史上有浓墨重彩的一笔。他从政后的作为与生于斯、长于斯的蒙自大莫别村,与眼前的杨家老宅会有什么联系呢?我琢磨:一是“时尚”之说,“狮子山下大莫别村,风水宝地,地灵人杰”。这话说说也罢毋庸赘述。二是我以为最主要的应是“时世造英雄”。光绪十四年(1888年)杨增新25 岁离家赴试,当时清朝政府腐败无能,继订立《中法续议界务商务专条》,将蒙自、蔓耗辟为通商口岸,法帝国主义在中国南境和西南境享有无条件最惠国待遇后,又订立《中法滇越界电线章程》,帝国主义在滇南大肆掠夺中国资源,各族人民群众饱受欺凌、屈辱。正处于热血青年时期的杨增新在故乡蒙自亲眼所见,亲耳所闻国势衰弱,洋人横行,官场积弊,民不聊生的国耻民恨必然刻骨铭心,“国家兴亡匹夫有责”,一介正直有为书生必然忧国忧民而产生救国救民于水火的伟大抱负。因此,才会有杨增新点进士后赴任塞外荒凉之地天水县知事时的豪言:“古今成大器者岂有成于安乐窝中?昆仑千丈云崖,正好砺我宝剑”。只有杨增新在大山中的大莫别村的勤奋苦读,他才会走出“高大的山”而步入仕途;才会有他任上的重教之举;才会有他一生酷爱学习和颇丰的著作;才会有他在新疆的雄才伟略和务实政绩。只有杨增新对地处祖国南疆的云南蒙自的衣胞之情,才会有他在同是祖国边疆,但却距万里之遥的新疆寄回大枇杷良种的故乡情结。想到这些,一个“清醒的政治家”的老宅并不奢侈的答案就尽在不言中了。至于解放后,杨家老宅作为小学校舍用,也聊算与杨增新一生重教兴学的心愿相吻合罢。

  返程路上,我咀嚼着杨增新主政新疆“无为而治”的一幅对联:“共和实草味初开,羞称五霸七雄,纷争莫问中原事;边庭有桃源胜境,狃率南回北准,浑噩长为太古民”。嗅着大莫别村夏日的绿色和红色中蕴藏着的万物勃勃生机的气息,心想,杨增新为新疆经济社会发展作出过贡献,为人民做过好事,不应该忘记他。按《中华人民共和国文物保护法》,杨增新故居应属与“重大历史事件”、“著名人物”有关的“重要史迹”,是应该列为红河州级乃至省级文物加以保护,维修、管理、开发,以资对杨增新予纪念,对后学以勉励。

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