清杨澧行书七言诗

清杨澧行书七言诗中堂收藏札记
作者:徐东海
  九一年初,我于崇明县城西沈家湾镇人吕桂山家中征购到清杨澧行书七言诗中堂。纸本立轴。内容为:

黄昏犹作雨纤纤,夜静无风势转岩;
但觉念稠如泼水,雨到庭院已堆口。
五更晓色来书幌,半夜寒雨落画帘;
试扫彤堂看写于,未口埋没有双尖。

  据查考,杨澧(1741—1796年),字诗愚,一作思禹,号宝田,又号名湖,崇明南堡镇人,生活在清朝乾隆年间,乾隆二十三年秀才,擅长诗书画。曾经“应试金陵”,但未考中举人,终身是一个廪生。杨澧“诗文字画皆躏古人堂奥,为人乐易对之,如坐春风”。杨澧在海门设馆授徒。编辑《瀛洲诗钞》没有完成,后由其侄杨樽把它完成。卒年五十六。著作有《翠苕集》、《宝田杂著》、《宝田诗文集》。有关他的传记资料,见嘉庆《太仓州志》卷三十四《孝义传》、杨樽《瀛洲诗钞》卷五、光绪《崇明县志》卷之十一、光绪《海门厅图志》卷十九《寓贤列传》施允华传、民国《崇明县志》卷之十二《人物志、文苑》、卷之十六《艺文志》等。
  《瀛洲诗钞》卷五辑录杨澧的诗共五十一首。嘉庆《太仓州志》卷三十九《宋胜传》另提及杨澧《宋将军歌》诗。幸存的这幅中堂上的七言诗是一首佚诗。
附录:杨澧家世
  自有崇明在宋朝。沉东京、涨崇明。迁崇始祖张廷玉,从句容迁居崇明。弘农郡,四知堂。
据崇明《杨氏家乘》内杨澧《健庵公传》,其先高祖杨云亭(县志作杨应龙)“避闯乱自浙之于姚(余姚)徙崇为句读师”。
  杨澧的曾祖杨瑞林(县志作杨时美)。祖父杨远(1648—1741年),字乾初,号健庵,生于清顺治五年,乾隆三年岁贡生,历官江浦训导,卒年九十四。著作有《静观堂文稿》。杨远的祖父杨应龙以孙远贵,貤赠修职佐郎,江浦县训导。杨远以子纯贵,赠文林郎,湖南永明县知县。清初崇明训导张荣《空明子集》参订姓氏(同学先后进姓氏)中有“杨远,乾初,堡镇”的记载。崇明《杨氏家乘》中有杨澧《健庵公传》。吴仁安《明清时期上海地区的著姓望族》第591页著录“崇明县杨远家族”。
  杨澧的伯父杨绎,字以成,康熙五十八年秀才,“有至性,年迈七十,事父犹亲涤厕牏”。
  杨澧的父亲杨纯(1690—1740年),字天锦,号綗夫,生于康熙二十九年庚午年午月午日,属马,小字“三午生”,康熙五十六年举人,雍正十一年任衡阳知县,主修《衡阳县志》二十四卷。雍正十二年署安仁知县。乾隆元年任湖南永明知县,“五年宰兹邑”。乾隆五年兼署道州知州。另历署武冈知州、长沙别驾。“洁己勤民,所至有惠政”,“德被楚中”,“吏治为楚中最”。私谥仁清。卒年五十一。传记见乾隆《崇明县志》卷十六《人物志二》、嘉庆《瀛洲诗钞》卷二(收录其诗二首)、道光《永明县志》卷之五《秩官志、遗爱传》、《国朝耆献类征初编》卷二百三十九《守令二十五》刘善谟传。崇明《杨氏家乘》中有杨澧《綗夫公传》。杨纯的祖父杨时美以孙纯贵,貤赠文林郎,湖南永明知县。杨纯妻顾氏、沈氏。
  今湖南省图书馆收藏雍正《衡阳县志》二十二卷,是国内罕见孤本,衡阳县最早的方志,杨纯主修,徐玑校订,雍正十二年杨纯撰《改修〈衡阳县志〉序》。
杨澧的长兄杨濂,字思周,号莲友,“国子生”,卒年三十七。《瀛洲诗钞》卷四收录其诗二首。
杨澧的仲兄杨湄,字思伊,号鹭洲,乾隆八年秀才,卒年四十九。与杨澧的“姐夫有晋三”“同殁于海”。著作有《东汉补阙》、《三国晋宋齐诸史谈助》。《瀛洲诗钞》卷四收录其诗一首。
  杨澧在乾隆二十八年“自长沙至永明访先祠”,因祠被火烧了,他与当地父老重新建造(见杨澧《癸未四月十二日先君祠像式新谨赋记事》)。
  杨澧把长兄葬在昆山,把他的儿子杨樽教养成名。
  与杨澧同时代、侨居海门的“邑诗人”有施允华(原名忠,字洁庵,县学生)、宋济(字鹤年)、倪钰(字宗篯)。“杨澧皆选其诗入《瀛洲诗钞》”。
  杨澧的妻子顾氏,杨澧《题东浦草堂》诗注有“外舅顾小涯先生故居”云云。杨澧《除夕示内》诗中称扬他“能安贱贫”、“寒苦”。据杨澧《送女至吴闾成绝句》诗,杨澧有一个女儿。
  杨澧的儿子杨桤,字荫万,“幼承庭训,书画皆楚楚有致”,卒年二十九。杨樽《瀛洲诗钞》卷六辑录其诗二首。乾隆朝秀才龚培(字南图)挽诗云:“纵有才华追李贺,更无福命比长沙。”
  杨澧的侄儿杨樽,字岂匏,乾隆四十三年秀才,“工诗文,裁就后进,多知名士”。如祝佩和(字湘珩)、裎勤(字补斋)。杨樽的著作有《石瓠诗文稿》。杨樽在“乙丑夏日”(嘉庆十年)编印《瀛洲诗钞》六卷(两册),今由县图书馆珍藏,为海内孤本。
  县志记载:“(杨)樽子炜、炳、耀,炜次子堡,皆有文名”。
  杨炜字彤文,嘉庆八年秀才,著作有《拙修小草》、《诗余存稿》。
  杨炳字与三,一字富文,嘉庆四年秀才,道光八年岁贡。
  据《崇明县院试题名录》(清邑人龚宝英手抄本),杨堡字保南,道光六年秀才,后“补廪”(廪生)。
  杨耀字焕文,道光四年秀才。
  有清一代,杨澧一家,“风骚萃一门”。
录自1994年8月《古瀛文博》第9期

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