山西杨家将世系考(01)

山西杨家将世系考
(供讨论参考)

关于杨家将的世系,史书上没有准确的记述。《中华杨氏通谱》中第二篇第六“存疑与辩伪”第二条(511页)中指出:北宋抗辽英烈杨家将原籍究竟是神木古麟州还是山西省代州,究竟是太清、於陵的后代还是隋炀帝的后代?待考。
经过多方考证研究,现提出以下考证依据:
一、杨信世系:

1983年作家郝树候写了《杨业传》,第一个提出,杨业的父亲是陕西神木杨信,而不是杨家将世代族谱中的杨衮。他认为,文学小说中的《杨家将前传》中第一章“火山王杨衮”中有误,火山王是杨信,而不是杨衮,所以说杨业的父亲是杨信,而不是杨衮。并以宋代文学家欧阳修为陕西神木杨琪写的墓铭志为证,依据
《供备库副使杨君墓志铭》,《供备库副使杨君墓志铭》中的杨君,叫杨琪。杨琪的祖父重勋(崇训)。杨琪之子杨畋,《宋史》中有传。此墓志铭写于北宋当代,为杨业殉国后的65年,宋代名将杨文广(即业孙)还活着的时候。其铭文云:

君讳琪,字宝臣,姓杨氏,麟州新秦人也。新秦近胡,以战射为俗,而杨氏世以武力雄其一方,其曾祖讳弘信,为州刺史。祖讳重勋,又为防御使,太祖时为置建宁军于麟州,以重勋为留后,后召以为宿州刺史、保静军节度使,卒赠侍中。父讳光扆,以西头供奉官监麟州兵马,卒于官,君其长子也。君之伯祖继业,太宗时为莫州防御使,与契丹战殁,赠太师中书令。继业有子延郎,真宗时为莫州防御使,父子皆为名将,其智勇号称无敌,至今天下之士,至于里儿野竖,皆能道之。该考证可谓有根有据。当前的全国爱国主义教育运动中的杨家将爱国教育内容中,皆以此为据,杨信的上祖是唐文宗、唐武宗的宰相杨翮复,最早的始祖为东汉四知堂主杨震。
二、杨衮世系:

产生存疑的焦点是,杨家将世代族谱和神祗(北方记载先祖名讳,大型活动和节日供奉的祖先灵位,现存放在内蒙赤峰市杨家将后人手中)中记载的相反,杨业的父亲是杨衮,祖父杨攽,曾祖父杨端(太原王)。而这一支是隋炀帝的后代,世系清楚。
三、考证的观点和依据:

关于两种世系,究竟那一种是真实的呢?笔者在考证大量的资料后认为,始祖和世系应由杨家将的后代来确认。理由是:1、任何人不会将自己的父亲和祖父搞错。2、现存的古神祗和古族谱最有说服力,是活证据。应以宋、元、明、清的族谱为准。

那么宋史和欧阳修写得墓铭志又如何解释呢?笔者认为:

1、杨衮在历史上确有其人,也不是小说中说的火山王,而是霍州王、代州王。是小说戏剧编写者为了扩大杨衮名气乱编的。

2、河西杨信在麟州(今陕西神木),就任于北周。杨衮和北汉刘知远是好友,仕北汉,一东一西代表两个国家。

3、欧阳修是宋代大文学家,他写杨琪的墓铭志,是私交。比杨琪名气大的杨业、杨六郎、杨文广,他为什么没写呢?最有可能的是出于私交深厚。从宋史上可以看出,杨重训归宋比杨业早十年,比杨业早死二十年,当年杨业归宋才二十多岁,杨业与重勋儿子杨光扆是同时代人,杨重训要比杨业大许多。
四、杨家将的先祖:
据杨家将族谱介绍,
杨业的祖父杨攽,五代时人,北汉皇帝刘知元好友,仕刘隐帝,不务诗书。尝曰:“仓廪实,甲兵盛,国家之急务也。”拜平奇枢密使。虽与史宏障、王奇共执国策,心性公忠,门无私谒。其子杨衮恨郭威之嗣。雪君父之耻,乃事北汉刘崇为政事令。如契丹求救,自将万骑从刘崇入晋阳,击周昭义节度使李筠,筠败退。后又于周阵于高平,衮操节予张元徵,曰:“量敌而后进。”元徵违制循败。衮保全师,败樊爱能。后取辽池之地,进爵为霍山郡王。衮生杰安、杰康、继业。杰安、杰康平靖,共趋父难,卒于阵。继业在宋伐汉时,继业胜,潘美败,宋主亲自督阵围城,外援不至,绝其饷道,汉主纳表归降。继业独居城中苦战,杀伤王师。宋主知其勇,欲生擒之,令汉主纳表招降,继业北拜失声痛哭,为了民生,脱甲见帝,帝慰甚厚,复姓杨,止名业,授金紫光禄大夫检校太傅,左领军卫大将军兼御史大夫上柱国。业善战,号称无敌,拜代州剌史,督守雁门,辽了望旌辄引去。(摘自明朝杨怀玉撰杨家将族谱)

在宋攻打北汉前,北汉和辽国是友好帮交,互有往来。宋攻北汉时,北汉不能顾及代州,被辽国接管,代州和杨衮归辽。辽最初入关,是北汉邀请协助抵抗宋军的,北汉主投降宋后,杨业孤军守城,多次击败宋军元帅潘美。后经北汉主出面招降,杨业才归宋。后来辽国攻打宋军,主要对手是杨业,杨衮阻止辽国入关,被辽主杀。

五、宋时,为了对付辽国南侵,杨光扆和杨业互有联系,杨业守雁门关、平型关,杨光扆守偏关、宁武关。东西两支杨家将,被后人在文学戏剧中混为
一谈。欧阳修给杨琪写墓铭志,称继业为琪伯祖,只写到杨六郎为止,而七郎八虎他没写,伯祖是在共同防守辽国南侵时杨琪对杨业的尊称,或挂名壮势,只有继业的旗帜可使辽兵“望旌引去。”

六、现在写史,都在找据,可据从何来?正史中也有很多不真实的内容,不可为凭。如,姞(女+吉ji)姓杨氏,任何史书中没有记载,可出土文物中有记载,我们能不能写?还有,各朝正史都是下一朝来写的,为了证明他们夺取政权的正确性,就要将上一个朝代写的一塌糊涂。才能说明他们夺取政权的正义性。唐朝夺取政权后,只说隋朝的腐败,他不写隋朝丰富的国库为唐朝的稳定做了几十年的贡献。
七、
杨氏文化是我中华民族文化中优秀的一部分,现在有很多外姓人在研究杨氏文化,他们对杨氏文化的宣传做了巨大的贡献。但也有人不能正视历史,糊编乱说一气,很不负责任。有人写了《关于杨业晚节的一个疑点》,将杨业被俘时说的一句话定型为杨业有投降意向。还有人写了《潘美陷害杨业考辨》,否认潘美是陷害杨业的主谋。这些都是历史做了结论的事,也不知道他们抵毀杨业和美化潘美的出发点是为了什么。
八、
杨震和杨业,一文一武,是杨氏文化中的两个闪光点,也是两相情愿的事情。一是廉官必定会有英勇善战的后代,二是英勇壮烈的杨家将必定有四知清白的先祖。这两点代表了我杨氏的闪光点:“文官不贪财,武将不怕死。”

九、但是大家忘了一点,杨震后人世系不乱。现在乱挂名人现象发生普遍,很多始祖存疑的支股,经考证,都不是弘农杨氏,而是另外一支“河东杨氏”的后人。通过异口同声说始祖,就有了“天下杨氏出弘农”一说。经过多年来杨氏历史研究专家考证,杨氏历史上的郡望有“弘农华阴杨氏”,“天水杨氏”,“河东杨氏”,“河内杨氏”。更确切的提法应该是“天下杨氏精英出弘农”。
十、
经中国社会科学院王庆卫教授从杨氏碑文和墓志铭中考证,隋文帝不是弘农杨氏一支,是因功攫位,为了表示正统而改写族谱的。隋文帝先祖都在山西任职,属于“河东杨氏”一族。这支杨氏在周朝旺盛一时,秦汉时政权西移,这支后人成为士族,逐渐消沉,随着税赋加重,“河东杨氏”知名人物都是农民起义领袖和占山为王的土豪、勇士。也有因功高被收编而成为名人的。

十一、湖南师范大学教授杨布生在《中华姓氏通史.杨》一书中关于山西杨氏中写到:

(2)太原杨氏,这里早在汉代时就有了杨姓人的遗迹。其代表人物有杨奉。汉献帝时,杨奉护驾有功,累官至兴义将军。后曹操迫迁献帝于许都(今河南许昌西南),就近控制朝廷。奉闻知,即自梁起兵,欲夺回献帝,但为时已晚,兵败南奔,归依袁术。宋时,这里又出现了杨家将一家,最为显赫。

如果杨布生老师的考证属实,那么山西杨家将就不是弘农杨震五子杨奉的后人,而是河东杨氏杨奉的后人。因为在汉献帝时,弘农杨奉已经100多岁了,可能已不在世了,而河东杨奉才39岁。

河东
杨奉(?--197),与杨风(农民起义领袖)叔伯兄弟,河东人(今洪洞县范村),起义军首领,后为李傕部将。李傕、郭汜之乱时,杨奉为兴义将军。护送献帝东还。建安元年(196),献帝还洛阳,以奉为车骑将军,出屯梁。曹操移帝许都,奉欲拦截车驾,为曹操所败,乃南奔袁术。攻吕布,为吕布离间,反破术将张勋,擒桥蕤,后被刘备诱斩。
根据此项研究结果说明,山西杨家将属于隋炀帝后代,河东杨氏一支。
附:隋炀帝族谱和山西杨家将族谱:
一、杨业以前世系一线图:
烈(太原太守)---桢(宁远太守)---忠(北周隋国公)---坚(隋文帝)---广(隋炀帝)---昭(弟元献,浙江始祖)---侑---慎(弟行知到四川)---播---炎---昭宪---凭---茂孝---帐诚---临牒---煚---端(太原太守)--攽---衮
二、杨家将世系:
一世:衮
二世:杰安、杰康、继业
三世:延平、延定、延光、延辉、延德、延郎(景)、延兴、延玉(养子,原姓王)、延琪、延瑛)
延平,世称杨大郎,又名渊平,开赋义勇,曾保驾宋太宗出幽州,有纪信之谋,年未壮而卒于阵,于雄州(今河南雄县)建祠以祀,封忠义将军,葬河北省永青县西北大王坨子。配张氏金定,封靖国夫人。生子:宗政
(后代在河北省乐亭、江苏省南通市);
延定,世称杨二郎,又名延广。为殿直,迁供奉官,赠封忠烈候。配李氏翠平。继配耿氏,生子宗应
(后代在太原市西山一代);
延光,世称杨三郎,又名延训,为殿直,赠封忠烈显将军,配朱氏月梅,生子:宗勉(后代在河南省焦作市武陟县西陶镇);
延辉,世称杨四郎,又名延环,赠封忠武候。配林氏素梅。生子:宗英
后到辽国当附马,(后代在大庆市和山东冠县)
延德,世称杨五郎,又名延贵,英武善战,屡立战功,任都
检巡检使,莫州防御使。配马氏金花。生子:宗保(后代在河南省南阳市方村和吉林昌图);
延郎,世称杨六郎,又名景,又作延朗,丰姿出类,机谋深远,北宋太宗淳化年间任幽州马步军、水陆都
部署,敕守高阳关、益津关、瓦桥关三关20余年,后诰封天水郡开国公。生于957年八月十九日,卒于1014年正月初七日享年57岁。配黄氏、柴氏。黄氏,又称黄琼女,系西夏国王之女,生于955年五月十二日,卒于1022年九月十七日,寿终67岁,生子:宗孝。柴氏,名金花,后周王室柴家之女,封郡主,生于960年九月初三日,卒于1027年,寿终67岁。生子:充广、贵迁(过继给播州杨昭---光震---后代在贵州、内蒙赤峰市)、文广(后代在山西省代县及全国)
延兴,世称杨七郎,又名延彬、延嗣,为殿直,赠封武勇将军,配杜氏金娥,生子:宗闵....震----执中、存中(后人在山西原平市)、居中、安中(后代在贵州省大方县坡脚区)
四世:
杨文广,官封无敌大将军、忠烈候、宁国公。配长善公主、杜月英、窦锦姑、鲍飞云。

五世:邦杯(后代在云南贵州)、邦仪、邦玉(后人在山西代县和全国各地)

三、河东杨氏世系一线图:
| 申生
诡诸(晋献公)---| 重耳(晋文公)---欢
|
夷皋(gao)(晋灵公)
--- (晋襄公)---- --| 捷(桓叔)-----
谈 ---
|周悼公 |豚尹宜---旬--灵横---(改桂姓)
---|杨干--------|申杵-----楚---宜考--何祈--燕---惕---招质--
-颗---仲叔--禽----
|去疾--午-----凿
|辅---- 肜---音(迁山东)

武---|在----可---孙---荣---|缙---?---异-(山西、浙江杨氏的始祖)----

|寄
|伦----风

---茂----空--|诧----|奉---丑----烈(太原太守)---桢(宁远太守)
|扶.....|乔---丰--- 璇尚旖

山西省杨氏文化促进会

执笔:杨安生

二00七年十一 月

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